INTONATION

Module: 6
Posted by: Lieni Immarie R. Monteron
Sources: 1. EFCOM by Milagros Castillo-Espina
                 2. Speech for Effective Communication by 
                         by Mely M. Padilla and ET AL
                 3. Effective Speech Communication in Various Situation
                            by Judy Imelda Igoy and Apolinario S. Saymo

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At the end of this module, the learners are expected to:
  • Describe intonation;
  • Identify the basic intonation patters;
  • Determine the commonly used tunes in intonation pattern.


ntonation refers to the tune or melodic flow of pattern of what we say. There is a notable rise and fall of the pitch level. This is determined by the mind and attitude of the speaker, and partly by the grammatical structure of his speech. The low, normal and high are most commonly used tunes in intonation patterns of Standard American English. Extra high tune is used only when expressing extreme fear, anger, surprise or excitement.

            A shifting occurs when there is a movement from one tune to another that takes place between syllables. Sometime the voice slides from one tune to another while a syllable are spoken. This movement is called a glide.

The Basic Intonation Patterns
  1. Rising – Falling Intonation or 2-3-1
  2. Rising Intonation or 2-3-3
  3. Non-final Intonation or 2-3-2

Rising – Falling Intonation or 2-3-1
            The tone of the rising-falling intonation moves from normal to high and then moves down to low as in the following patterns:

                                                            high
                                    normal
                                                                        low


            There are two types of rising-falling intonation:

a)     shift – the movement from one tone to another;
-         indicated by a straight vertical line
-         it is shift when the stressed syllable is followed by an unstressed syllable or syllables.

                                                            high
                                    normal              3
                                    2                                  low
                                                                        1

Ex.                   Where is your son’s office?            
                                     2                      3   1        
Glide – movement within a syllable is marked by a diagonally- curbed line called   inflection. When the stressed syllable is the last words in the sentence, inflection is used. The vowel is prolonged in an inflection in order that the pitch change may be distinctly heard.

He’s in town
      2    3   1
This type of intonation patter is normally used at the end of the following sentences:
  1. Declarative sentences

This is my sister.
                              2           3   1

  1. Imperative sentences or commands


Close the window.
                               2          3   1

  1. Special questions that begin with interrogative words such as what, who, why, etc. are used in questions that can’t be answered by yes or no.


Who is coming?
                           2          3     1


Rising Intonation or 2-3-3
            The tone of voice moves from normal to high.

  1. This is used at the end of questions which do not begin with interrogatives, but which may be answered by yes or no.


Are you ill?                             Will you come?
                              2      3                                      2         3

  1. Slow and deliberate counting

  One                 two                   three                       
             2   3                 2  3                   2    3


  1. enumeration

   Amy                                       Lady
                        2    3                                   2     3

Falling Intonation or 3-1
            Begins with a high a tune (3) and ends on a low one (1). This pattern is used in one word and short command and in counting off numbers.
Example:       
                        Dive                run                   get it
                        3   1                3   1                  3      1


Nonfinal Intonation or 2-3-2
                    Nonfinal intonation varies from speaker to speaker with little corresponding variation in meaning. In normal speech, intonation is heard not only at the end of the sentence but also in the sentence itself.
               The nonfinal pattern may be used in the situation below in the combination with the rising-falling (2-3-1) or rising (2-3-3) intonation patterns.

  1. In a function or content words which are specially stressed that precede the last stressed word.
 Example:                 
                                    Are they ready to sing?
                                      2      3          2         3

  1. In comparison and contrast
Example:
                                   I’m looking for a blue book not a red book.
                                               2               3           2         3       1

  1. On sentences where two or more thought groups are divided by short pauses.
Example:
                                   If she leaves now, you have to go with her.
                                              2        3                   2              3       1

Guide Questions:
            Mark the intonation of each sentence. First put the high note in proper place; then fill in next the rising-falling pattern.
  1. The lady smiles enigmatically.
  2. Let us meet at the canteen.
  3. What shall we order?
  4. Where is the waiter?
  5. Do you know what you want?
  6. May I see the menu?
  7. Will you have an appetizer?
  8. I’ll take the regular dinner.
  9. We have enough time to finish.
  10. Bring us the bill later.

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