Posted by: Lieni Immarie R. Monteron
Sources: 1. Speech and Oral Communication for College Students
by Rafaela H. Diaz2. http://www.latvianstuff.com/Aspirated_Unaspirated.html
At the end of this module, the learners are expected to:
- Describe aspiration;
- Enumerate the three aspirated consonants;
- Produce the sound of the words with the aspirated consonants correctly.
Refers to an explosive sound of breath brought about by a sudden release of air after the contact of parts of the speech mechanism. This puff of the air accompanies the utterance of a sound.
/p/, /t/, /k/ are aspirated when they are found in initial position as in the following examples. Don’t forget /p/ is bilabial, /t/ is alveolar and /k/ is a velar.
Till pick power
Keep tree table
Pool cook car
/p/, /t/, /k/ are not aspirated when found in medial or in final position within the stream of speech. Observe the following:
Apart city broker
Opal party market
Open water basket
Apple matter bakery
Company writing cycle
Dip tilt look
Top not ask
Stop bat pink
They are not aspirated in words: spill, skill, still. Neither /b/, /d/, /g/, the voiced counterpart of /p/, /t/, /k/, aspirated.
Tick – dick trip – dip
Palm – balm tuck – duck
Come – gun post – boast
The /t/ or /d/ in English is made by striking the tip of the tongue on the upper teeth ridge. Do not put the tongue between the teeth as you do in the vernacular. Let us practice.
Tell the teacher do a dance step
Trick or treat grade his work
Take a test good old days
Good, better, best
Never let it rest
Till your good is better
And your better best
Although most of the time English [p], [t], and [k] sounds are aspirated (i.e. have the puff of air), there are certain situations in which English speakers produced them without this puff of air. In English, these unaspirated consonants typically occur after an [s] which starts the same syllable. Here are some examples of each type:
You can clearly see the aspiration if you hold a lighted candle, or—and this is much safer—a thin strip of paper vertically in front of your mouth. Hold it fairly close to your lips and say pin. You should see the candle flame flicker or the strip of paper bend away from your lips.
If you don't see it either (a) you're holding it too far away from your mouth, or (b) you're not a native speaker of English. In the first case, adjust the distance so that the paper (candle) is closer to your lips, and try again. The air which exits from you mouth and bends the paper (or candle) is the puff of air linguists call aspiration.
Try this a few times until you have the paper (or candle) responding with a bend (or flicker) every time. Now, keeping the paper (or candle) at exactly the same distance from your lips, say the word spin. Either the paper won't move at all, or else it will bend much less than it did for pin. This absence of air movement indicates that the sound is unaspirated.
To practise producing an unaspirated [p], [t], or [k] sound, say a word like spin, stem, or skin very slowly. Say it more and more slowly until you consciously register how it feels to say an unaspirated consonant sound. Now say it slowly, but just "think" the [s] and don't actually say it out loud. Constantly check your pronunciation with the strip of paper (or candle) to make sure that you haven't reverted and are still saying an unaspirated sound.
|Here are the conditions for aspiration in English:|
|English p t ch and k are aspirated when they come at the beginning of a syllable that has the accent: pin, tin, chin, kin.|
|There's no aspiration if an S comes before the consonant in the same word: pan : span, tan : Stan, can : scan|
|There's no aspiration before unaccented syllables: backup, dipper, master, thicker.|
|Aspiration is optional when an accented syllable ends the word: dump, thick, wait, watch, but setup, bucket, logic.|
|Theres no aspiration when an unaccented syllable ends the word: setup, bucket, logic.|
Identify the following whether it is aspirated or not. Put A when it is aspirated and AU when it’s not.
- talk 11. patient
- put 12. ink
- output 13. parent
- came 14. book
- income 15. care
- walk 16. people
- feet 17. person
- pet 18. key
- think 19. thanks
- take 20. look